Repository of Research and Investigative Information

Repository of Research and Investigative Information

Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences

D-limonene in diabetic rats

(2021) D-limonene in diabetic rats. Journal of Renal Injury Prevention.


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Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multi-factorial condition associated with oxidative stress. Limonene, as a plant-derived antioxidant, can be used for treating DM. Objectives: An investigation on antioxidant effects in diabetic rats exposed to D-limonene. Materials and Methods: Sixty male Wistar rats were categorized into six groups as follows: control (healthy rats), diabetic control (untreated diabetic rats), sham glibenclamide, diabetic glibenclamide, sham limonene, and finally diabetic limonene. Alloxan (100 mg/dL) was infused intraperitoneally to induce type 1 diabetes in rats. Rats in certain groups were given limonene (100 mg/dL) and glibenclamide (10 mg/dL) orally for 8 weeks. Subsequently, animals were killed, and their kidneys were removed. Serum levels of biochemical factors (including serum creatinine, urea, and glucose) were determined, and factors such as nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured in kidney tissue homogenate. The gene expression and enzymatic activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the kidney were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) and spectrophotometry, respectively. Results: Limonene treatment significantly decreased serum glucose, creatinine, and urea. Additionally, MDA, MPO, and NO significantly decreased while GSH increased after treatment with limonene. Real-time RT-PCR showed significant elevation (P<0.05) in mRNA levels of GPx, CAT, and SOD in the limonene-treated compared with the diabetic control group. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that limonene as an herbal antioxidant had better effects on antioxidant markers compared to glibenclamide in rat models of diabetes. Copyright © 2021 The Author(s); Published by Nickan Research Institute. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Gene expression; Antioxidant enzymes; Diabetes; Limonene; Oxidative stress
Divisions: Research Vice-Chancellor Department > Lung Diseases and Allergy Research Center
Page Range: pp. 1-8
Journal or Publication Title: Journal of Renal Injury Prevention
Journal Index: Scopus
Volume: 10
Number: 3
Publisher: Nickan Research Institute
Identification Number: 10.34172/jrip.2021.24
ISSN: 23452781
Depositing User: مسعود رسول آبادی

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