Repository of Research and Investigative Information

Repository of Research and Investigative Information

Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences

Global, regional, and national levels and causes of maternal mortality during 1990-2013: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

(2014) Global, regional, and national levels and causes of maternal mortality during 1990-2013: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. The Lancet.

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Background The fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5) established the goal of a 75 reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR; number of maternal deaths per 100 000 livebirths) between 1990 and 2015. We aimed to measure levels and track trends in maternal mortality, the key causes contributing to maternal death, and timing of maternal death with respect to delivery. Methods We used robust statistical methods including the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) to analyse a database of data for 7065 site-years and estimate the number of maternal deaths from all causes in 188 countries between 1990 and 2013. We estimated the number of pregnancy-related deaths caused by HIV on the basis of a systematic review of the relative risk of dying during pregnancy for HIV-positive women compared with HIV-negative women. We also estimated the fraction of these deaths aggravated by pregnancy on the basis of a systematic review. To estimate the numbers of maternal deaths due to nine diff erent causes, we identified 61 sources from a systematic review and 943 site-years of vital registration data. We also did a systematic review of reports about the timing of maternal death, identifying 142 sources to use in our analysis. We developed estimates for each country for 1990-2013 using Bayesian meta-regression. We estimated 95 uncertainty intervals (UIs) for all values. Findings 292 982 (95 UI 261 017-327 792) maternal deaths occurred in 2013, compared with 376 034 (343 483-407 574) in 1990. The global annual rate of change in the MMR was -0.3 (-1.1 to 0.6) from 1990 to 2003, and -2.7 (-3.9 to -1.5) from 2003 to 2013, with evidence of continued acceleration. MMRs reduced consistently in south, east, and southeast Asia between 1990 and 2013, but maternal deaths increased in much of sub-Saharan Africa during the 1990s. 2070 (1290-2866) maternal deaths were related to HIV in 2013, 0.4 (0.2-0.6) of the global total. MMR was highest in the oldest age groups in both 1990 and 2013. In 2013, most deaths occurred intrapartum or postpartum. Causes varied by region and between 1990 and 2013. We recorded substantial variation in the MMR by country in 2013, from 956.8 (685.1-1262.8) in South Sudan to 2.4 (1.6-3.6) in Iceland. Interpretation Global rates of change suggest that only 16 countries will achieve the MDG 5 target by 2015. Accelerated reductions since the Millennium Declaration in 2000 coincide with increased development assistance for maternal, newborn, and child health. Setting of targets and associated interventions for after 2015 will need careful consideration of regions that are making slow progress, such as west and central Africa. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: abortion; Africa south of the Sahara; algorithm; Article; Asia; bleeding; Caribbean; cause of death; cause of death ensemble mdel; delivery; east asia; Europe; female; groups by age; high income group; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; hypertension; Iceland; intrapartum period; labor complication; lowest income group; maternal mortality; Middle East; North Africa; North America; Pacific islands; pregnancy; priority journal; puerperium; reproduction; risk factor; sepsis; socioeconomics; South America; South Asia; Southeast Asia; statistical analysis; Sudan; systematic review; uncertainty; age distribution; article; health; mortality; multicenter study; organization; pregnancy complication; statistical model; statistics; time, Age Distribution; Cause of Death; Female; HIV Infections; Humans; Maternal Mortality; Models, Statistical; Organizational Objectives; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Complications, Infectious; Risk Factors; Socioeconomic Factors; Time Factors; World Health
Page Range: pp. 980-1004
Journal or Publication Title: The Lancet
Volume: 384
Number: 9947
Publisher: Lancet Publishing Group
Identification Number: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60696-6
ISSN: 01406736
Depositing User: مهندس جمال محمودپور

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